Background

一直以來都對資料視覺化的東西很有興趣, 但感覺一直遇到了一個瓶頸. 所以看到了一份 Tableau 在網路上公開的一份文件. 想說做個紀錄. 用來對之後我要做任何chart的參考.

Different type of charts

Bar chart

Comparing data across categories. Examples: Volume of shirts in different
sizes, website traffic by origination site, percent of spending by department.

Bar chart 就很基本一般很常見的圖, 基本上就在比較不同類別但衡量標準是一樣時所用的圖. 那如果在同個類別下又有不同的子類別, 那也適合用這個圖. 主要就是看怎麼表達你所描述的資料.

ex:

Line Chart

Viewing trends in data over time. Examples: stock price change over a ve-
year period, website page views during a month, revenue growth by quarter.

也是常見的圖之一, 基本上概念很簡單也很直覺. 用來表現連續性的資料. (x: 通常是時間, y: 通常是value). 那多條線就表示不同的類別.

ex:

Pie Chart

Showing proportions. Examples: percentage of budget spent on different
departments, response categories from a survey, breakdown of how Americans spend their leisure time.

Pie Chart 也是一種很常見的圖, 但我個人就覺得沒有這麼實用. 通常是拿來表現一些很 Routine 的資料才會使用.

ex:

Map

Showing geocoded data. Examples: Insurance claims by state, product export
destinations by country, car accidents by zip code, custom sales territories.

Map 通常要結合其他表現方式才會呈現的比較有感覺(Bar, Scatter之類的), 像是把map分區域不同的區域代表不同的數值, 或是在Map上加上Scatter來呈現資料的影響力之類的 所以我個人認為這是一種比較高端的呈現方式.

ex:

Scatter Plot

Investigating the relationship between different variables. Examples: Male
versus female likelihood of having lung cancer at different ages, technology early adopters’ and laggards’ purchase patterns of smart phones, shipping costs of different product categories to different regions.

這是個算我一直想用, 但又沒有很好的資料來呈現的圖. 通常來拿看兩個變數之間的關係. 然後也可以很快地看出Outlier. 大概就這樣.

ex:

Gantt Chart

Displaying a project schedule. Examples: illustrating key deliverables, owners,
and deadlines.

Showing other things in use over time. Examples: duration of a machine’s use, availability of players on a team.

甘特圖算一個我蠻不喜歡的圖吧. 感覺就是打嘴砲在用的圖. 基本上就是時間規劃用的圖啦. 以前念研究所的時候教授很愛看.

ex:

Bubble Chart

Showing the concentration of data along two axes. Examples: sales
concentration by product and geography, class attendance by department and time of day.

Bubble Chart 算是一個蠻有趣的圖, 他除了有座標代表在平面上的意思外還有自身Bubble的大小可以表示, Bubble的大小通常代表數量的大小.

ex:

Histogram Chart

Understanding the distribution of your data. Examples: Number of customers
by company size, student performance on an exam, frequency of a product defect.

直方圖, 應該是通常第一個學的圖吧. 通常用來看 Distribution. X軸通常為連續的數值的區間.

Bullet Chart

Evaluating performance of a metric against a goal. Examples: sales quota
assessment, actual spending vs. budget, performance spectrum (great/good/poor).

老實說我還真沒用過這種圖, 所以我也不太確定他怎麼用XD.

Heat Map

Showing the relationship between two factors. Examples: segmentation
analysis of target market, product adoption across regions, sales leads by individual rep.

熱力圖, 通常就用顏色的深淺來表示資料的密度(數量的多寡).

Highlight Table

Providing detailed information on heat maps. Examples: the percent of a
market for different segments, sales numbers by a reps in a particular region, population of cities in different years.

其實簡單的來說就是 Heatmap 加上數字而已.

ex:

Treemap

Showing hierarchical data as a proportion of a whole: Examples: storage
usage across computer machines, managing the number and priority of technical support cases, comparing scal budgets between years

Treemap 老實說我自己也沒有很懂, 但我自己是不會用這種圖來解釋事情啦. 因為這種圖感覺蠻不直觀的. 所以如果要用這種圖講解資料的話. 聽的人可能也要有一定的基礎. 不然其實有點麻煩.

ex:

Box-and-whisker Plot

Showing the distribution of a set of a data: Examples: understanding your
data at a glance, seeing how data is skewed towards one end, identifying outliers in your data.

Box-Plot 也是在統計學上常見的一種圖形, 主要就是了解第一&第三四分位數. 可以幫助我們解讀資料.

ex:

Some Examples

其實像這種組合圖(Bar chart & Line chart)其實算蠻實用的, 有時候希望把兩組有關係的資料or特性放在一張圖裡面一起講會比較清楚. 但有時候會發生Y軸單位不一樣的問題, 那這時候通常都用Dobule Y軸來處理, 如上圖所示.

Reference